NAMI Montana is committed to raising awareness and providing valuable information on mental health topics to support individuals and their loved ones. In this week's research update, we are featuring three articles that shed light on various aspects of First-Episode Psychosis. It is important to note that these articles are for informational purposes only and should not replace professional advice or guidance.
We encourage everyone to work closely with their own clinicians and healthcare providers to determine the most appropriate care and treatment options for their specific needs. These articles aim to enhance understanding and facilitate meaningful conversations between individuals and their healthcare teams
Efficacy and safety of individual second-generation vs. first-generation antipsychotics in first-episode psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis
Zhang, J. P., Gallego, J. A., Robinson, D. G., Malhotra, A. K., Kane, J. M., & Correll, C. U. (2013). Efficacy and safety of individual second-generation vs. first-generation antipsychotics in first-episode psychosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. The international journal of neuropsychopharmacology, 16(6), 1205–1218. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1461145712001277
Because early treatment choice is critical in first-episode schizophrenia-spectrum disorders (FES), this meta-analysis compared efficacy and tolerability of individual second-generation antipsychotics (SGAs) with first-generation antipsychotics (FGAs) in FES. We conducted systematic literature search (until 12 December 2010) and meta-analysis of acute, randomized trials with ≥1 FGA vs. SGA comparison; patients in their first episode of psychosis and diagnosed with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders; available data for psychopathology change, treatment response, treatment discontinuation, adverse effects, or cognition. Across 13 trials (n = 2509), olanzapine (seven trials) and amisulpride (one trial) outperformed FGAs (haloperidol: 9/13 trials) in 9/13 and 8/13 efficacy outcomes, respectively, risperidone (eight trials) in 4/13, quetiapine (one trial) in 3/13 and clozapine (two trials) and ziprasidone (one trial) in 1/13, each. Compared to FGAs, extrapyramidal symptom (EPS)-related outcomes were less frequent with olanzapine, risperidone and clozapine, but weight gain was greater with clozapine, olanzapine and risperidone. Pooled SGAs were similar to FGAs regarding total psychopathology change, depression, treatment response and metabolic changes. SGAs significantly outperformed FGAs regarding lower treatment discontinuation, irrespective of cause, negative symptoms, global cognition and less EPS and akathisia, while SGAs increased weight more (p < 0.05-0.01). Results were not affected by FGA dose or publication bias, but industry-sponsored studies favoured SGAs more than federally funded studies. To summarize, in FES, olanzapine, amisulpride and, less so, risperidone and quetiapine showed superior efficacy, greater treatment persistence and less EPS than FGAs. However, weight increase with olanzapine, risperidone and clozapine and metabolic changes with olanzapine were greater. Additional FES studies including broader-based SGAs and FGAs are needed.
Epigenetics and first-episode psychosis: A systematic review
Background: Schizophrenia has a large disease burden globally. Early intervention in psychosis, and therefore a decreased duration of untreated psychosis, has a positive clinical impact. There are several recognized risk factors for psychosis, including trauma history and substance use. This systematic review examined the literature for studies related to epigenetic changes in first-episode psychosis, with the goal of identifying future research directions.
Results: Seventeen studies that examined various portions of the genome were included in this systematic review. There were two studies that showed hypomethylation at the LINE-1 portion of the genome and two that showed hypermethylation at LINE-1. Additionally, two studies showed hypomethylation specifically at the GRIN2B promoter (part of LINE-1).
Conclusions: Although sample sizes were small, these studies provide evidence for epigenetic alterations in early psychosis. Further research in this area is warranted for more definitive epigenetic correlations.
Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in First-Episode Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Fraguas, D., Díaz-Caneja, C. M., Ayora, M., Hernández-Álvarez, F., Rodríguez-Quiroga, A., Recio, S., Leza, J. C., & Arango, C. (2019). Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in First-Episode Psychosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Schizophrenia bulletin, 45(4), 742–751. https://doi.org/10.1093/schbul/sby125
Despite mixed findings, increasing evidence suggests that people with first-episode psychosis (FEP) show increased pro-inflammatory and pro-oxidative status. We used the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines to conduct a systematic literature search of cross-sectional studies comparing in vivo inflammatory and oxidative blood markers between FEP patients and healthy controls. We analyzed 61 independent samples from 59 publications, including 3002 patients with FEP (ie, patients with FEP, early psychosis, first-episode schizophrenia or early schizophrenia) and 2806 controls. After controlling for multiple comparisons, our meta-analysis showed that total antioxidant status and docosahexaenoic acid levels were significantly lower in FEP patients than in controls, whereas levels of homocysteine, interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha were significantly higher in FEP patients than in controls. This suggests that FEP patients had reduced antioxidant status and a pro-inflammatory imbalance, and that these biological processes may be targets for managing FEP.
To Learn More:
Find out more about mental health conditions at the National Institute of Mental Health website.
Check out our "Mental Health in History" series at https://www.namimt.org/news/
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